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why is the eastern cougar endangered

By 8 December 2020 No Comments

Over the years the population of the cougars has declined because of hunting pressure and habitat destruction. In the old days, phylogeny was proposed based upon morphology (the shape, color, and external characteristics of an animal and its skeleton). Most of these cougars were killed in … In this case, the distance the NH population is from the nearest breeding population is unlikely to support DPS listing. These are migrants from the west, not local mountain lions that survived undetected for the last 70 years. A different subspecies, the Florida panther, is endangered due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Based on a five-year status review completed in 2011, the agency proposed to delist the cats in June 2015, and reopened the comment period on the proposal last year. The evidence eastern pumas were pretty much the same animal as cougars alive today in the West provides a biological basis for reintroducing cougars from the West. No current reintroduction plans are in place, except for Florida, where cougars from Texas have been introduced as a possible way to boost population numbers and diversity for the Florida panther subspecies. It will now be up to each state to decide whether that is a course they would like to pursue, however, the debates between pro-predator and anti-predator constituents are unlikely to be any easier. Fish and Wildlife Service. Thus, current and future eastern migrants are unaffected by the new federal ruling—and still protected following the laws of the states in which they move while they are dispersing to seek new territories to call their own. The animals face significant threats from habitat loss and fragmentation, and some down-the-line impacts from hunters killing younger males. Based on comments and information received in response to the delisting proposal, the agency made some changes to the final rule. Eastern Cougar: No Longer Endangered. Thus, the eastern cougar is not extinct—it never existed. The Eastern Cougar is a large predator that is 171-274 cm long. Some hunters and outdoors enthusiasts have long insisted there's a small breeding population of eastern cougars , saying the secretive cats have simply eluded detection – hence the "ghost cat" moniker. Any recent news of mountain lion sightings in the northeast, and any future confirmations of mountain lions in the northeast, do not justify the existence of the “eastern cougar” as a separate subspecies. It’s hard to imagine a state deciding to reintroduce a big scary cat that has been known to attack humans. Thanks for keen questions. if it is a male and 150-233 cm long if it is a female. Beginning in the 1800s, European settlers began rounding up and killing off cougars in the northeast. I’m not sure! A Canadian wildlife group has not made remarks regarding the eastern cougar since 1998; in those comments, serious doubt was expressed regarding the species living anywhere—except, possibly, in Florida. The odd thing, though, is that the eastern cougar per se may never have existed. And the agency wants to take it off the endangered species list. The last confirmed sighting of an Eastern cougar was in 1938, when it is believed that hunters in Maine shot the last one. The Eastern Cougar eats about 4 kg of food per day. Unlike the other big cats, the cougar cannot roar and purrs like the house cat. Sorry–I’ll try to figure it out. In Alberta, caribou populations were once abundant. You say that migrants from the west to the eastern US are not protected. Male cougars are known to roam large distances in search of territory or mates, but when females are spotted in the East, it would be one sign of a rebounding population, says Elbroch. But, much more importantly, the newest science has revealed that there never was an “eastern cougar” subspecies to begin with. So it seems that realistically the only way cougars recolonizing the east on their own might get protection is by triggering state ESA laws, where such laws exist. Conservationists Urge States Like New York to Consider Reintroductions . The U.S. agency first began investigating the population in 2011, and officially recommended removal in 2015. Before the 19th century, cougars were abundant in this range. It is unique. Robinson hopes to see more state-by-state conservation measures enacted to preserve the ecological balance these large predators provide. If you live in an eastern state that is deliberating reintroduction, or if you would like then to consider it as an option, get involved, reach out and contribute your thoughts. But the USFWS says that animal is extinct. The eastern cougar at one time lived over the entire United States and Canada. This post briefly reviews the challenges facing Alberta’s woodland caribou. Yet, even he was documented numerous times on motion-triggered cameras and by experienced woodsmen and women while he traveled. The species, also known as pumas, are the genetic cousins of mountain lions in the Western United States and of Florida panthers, which are now found only in the Everglades. On June 17, 2015, the Service published a proposed rule ( 80 FR 34595 ) to remove the eastern puma from the List, with a comment period extending through August 17, 2015. The large predators were seen as threats to livestock, which resulted in the cats being actively hunted and bounties placed on their heads. 6. In a recently published paper, Elbroch found that cougars are what he calls subordinate predators in the ecosystem, meaning they're carnivores, but also face threats from larger predators like wolves and bears. People in MA freaked out over a proposal to reintroduce the timber rattlesnake to an island in the Quabbin Res. Overall the Endangered Species Act has been 99 percent successful at saving species from extinction. Caribou are now an endangered species in Canada and their conservation causes heated debate amongst scientists, industry, and community members. The coat is typically tawny like that of the lion, which is why it was initially called the "mountain lion", but it otherwise ranges from silvery-grey or reddish with lighter patches on the underbody, including the jaws, chin, and throat. Eastern cougars were declared endangered in 1973, even though the last known records were tied to one killed by a hunter in Maine in 1938 and another in New Brunswick, Canada, in … Tags: Eastern cougar, endangered species act, extinction, federal ruling, mountain lion, puma. Taking the eastern pumas off the endangered list will enable eastern states, such as New York, to reintroduce western pumas, also called mountain lions, into the region. The review concludes that the eastern cougar is extinct. https://www.cougarnet.org/research/. I really admire your work and wish you continued success. There's no doubt that Western cougar populations are heading east. The U.S. In the sameyear, a group of scholars and students f… Regarding your question 1: Many speculate that the USFWS may switch the listing of the Florida panther to one based upon what is called a “distinct population segment (DPS).” And this is what you are referring to when you rightly point out that the ESA can indeed protect a “population” rather than a subspecies. This species is so endangered in the Northeast in fact that the U.S. The eastern puma (=cougar) was originally listed as an endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678). Overall, cougars are in no danger of extinction. Fish and Wildlife characterized eastern cougars as long extinct. This is something conservation scientists, advocates, and managers need to monitor closely as the status of Florida panther is reviewed by the U.S. It will be interesting to see how that plays out. The new document concludes that the eastern cougar should be removed from the endangered species list. The FL panther is certainly a distinct population. I thought the ESA covered endangered “populations”, as well as endangered subspecies and species. or decades, the presence of eastern cougar (Felis concolor couguar) in New Brunswick has been debated among biologists and the public. Ghost Cat Gone: Eastern Cougar Officially Declared Extinct. In 2011, the USFWS opened an extensive review into the status of the Eastern cougar; and in 2015, federal wildlife biologists concluded that there was no evidence of a viable population left. He's referencing the fact that cougars often travel alone, often at night, and they're hard to track. Here's how the USFWS explains it: The Service completed the formal review of the eastern cougar in 2011. "There are even scientists arguing it should be removed for taxonomical error.". It was designated endangered in 1978. To see one in the northeastern U.S. is even more rare, almost certainly a fluke. Around 1,000 cougars are thought to be in captivity in the U.S. and Canada. Eastern cougars lived in any wooded area and had no natural predator. The removal of the eastern cougar from the federal endangered species list, however, opens up an extremely controversial possibility. Unfortunately, as of 2011, eastern cougar numbers were deemed too low for them to continue breeding and so the cat was deemed extinct. Eastern cougar is declared extinct nearly 80 years after last one was trapped and killed in Maine. Even if there was evidence that some of these new migrants were breeding, that is still not evidence of eastern mountain lions. WASHINGTON— The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "It removes all those loopholes and complications of introducing a species where they're listed as endangered," notes Elbroch. Eastern Puma Declared Extinct, Removed From Endangered Species List . Yes, the fact that there is not a breeding population of “eastern cougars” in the northeast of the United States or eastern-most Canada is reason for the declaration. That brings us to the second criteria for DPS designation, which is “significance” — the Florida panther population is significant as it is the only wild population of mountain lions on the eastern seaboard. Animal Tracking, Conservation, Mountain Lions State Wildlife Agencies act on behalf of their public—so let them know how you feel. Not since 1932 and 1938 in New Brunswick and Maine, respectively, were cougars officially recorded in the northeastern U.S.—at least in terms of breeding populations. When early European settlers first moved to North America, taxonomists began classifying the cats as different subspecies. I think the wording of the federal ruling unintentionally—but unfortunately—influenced how the media covered the change in conservation status. Fish and Wildlife Service. But what we’re talking about here is something called the eastern cougar. Phylogeny is the science that proposes how animals are related by their evolutionary history. Why aren’t they? This was done with the authority of 1973’s Endangered Species Act. Fish and Wildlife Service formally removed the eastern cougar from the endangered species list and declared it to be extinct in 2018. Although the eastern cougar has been on the endangered species list since 1973, its existence has long been questioned. My point is that even a single cat without a territory leaves sign, and a resident breeding population leaves much more. The Florida panther, Puma concolor coryi, is listed separately from the eastern mountain lion, and its status under the Endangered Species Act is unaffected by the recent federal ruling. Endangered to extinct. Documenting this lone male was akin to looking for a needle in a haystack when you consider the massive geographic range he traversed, in which he unlikely ever encountered another mountain lion east of the Mississippi (if not east of Kansas). Here is the complete federal ruling, but here I provide what I believe are the five key take-home messages for those of us invested in mountain lion conservation. But the big cats weren't always so scarce. This is just one man’s opinion, of course. Let’s assume that indeed migrants arrive and establish a breeding population in New Hampshire. The agency conducted an … That’s Not a Good Thing. However, on January 22, the Eastern cougar subspecies was officially declared extinct in the U.S. and removed from the endangered species list by the U.S. Other subspecies of cougar … He lives in the mountains of New Mexico and says it's thrilling to see one in the wild. So, physical distance will be the key to DPS listing, which I personally believe is warranted. A decline in large predators is thought to be at least partially responsible for growing deer numbers. Once documented only west of the Rockies, Western cougars have been popping up in the Midwest, and some males have even been found closer to the East Coast. Whether or not this can be really characterized as an extinction, he says, depends on how loosely you use that term. Fish and Wildlife Service has officially declared the subspecies extinct and removed it from the U.S. endangered species list. The ruling was not unexpected. The agency conducted an extensive review of the eastern cougar in 2011, and recommended it be removed from the endangered and threatened species list in 2015, Reuters reported. Eastern cougars once roamed every U.S. state east of the Mississippi, but it has been eight decades since the last confirmed sighting of the animal. The eastern cougar is no longer endangered. A cougar trapped in Somerset County, Maine in 1938 may have been the last one to roam the northeast. Fish and Wildlife Service. A Species At Risk: The Eastern Cougar Reproductive Data Where Were They Found/Where Did They Live Cougars begin to breed at 2 or 3 years old, every 2 to 3 years at a time, producing 1-6 cubs each time. Cougar are increasingly found in habitat patches that have been fragmented by human activities such as highways, ranches and farms. The eastern cougar was a subspecies of the North American cougar. But advances in genetic testing have since proven that these differently named American cats are genetically the same. "This will allow states to be in control of that process.". The Endangered Species Act does not give the Service the authority to introduce a different subspecies into the eastern cougar’s historical range and protect it as the eastern cougar subspecies. Re-introducing animals into previous range (as was done with wolves into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995 and 1996) is an arduous process. Only the eastern cougar, which includes the Florida panther, is endangered or extirpated through much of its former range. Posted in: Fish and Wildlife Service evaluation in 2011. Text and images © Mark Elbroch unless otherwise noted, Natural History, Animal Tracking, And Mountain Lions. Thanks for the clarifications! The U.S. The U.S. Again, thanks for the additional info. However, the Eastern Puma had been listed as an endangered species for some time – and hasn’t been seen in the wild in over 80 years. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has completed a review of all available information about the eastern cougar, which has been on the endangered species list since 1973. According to conservation organization the Cougar Fund, all Western states except Texas have at least some protections for cougars. The FWS listed the subspecies nearly four decades ago, but experts suspect that it has been extinct in the region for much longer. This is my opinion, of course, which highlights the fact that each of these criteria needs to be interpreted, and how different reviewers might come to different conclusions. I’ve received a lot of worried messages and comments on social media about the recent U.S. In 2015, the agency inferred that the animal does notneed to be protected under the Endangered Species Act and decided to de-listit. But increasingly, researchers assess genetic distance instead (or sometimes, in addition to physical distance)–if indeed the genetics of Florida panthers are the same as other North American mountain lions, this measure will no longer support DPS. Fish and Wildlife declaration that the “eastern cougar” (or mountain lion, Puma concolor couguar) is extinct, and was therefore being removed from federal endangered species protections. The declaration was met by resignation in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences, where Gary San Julian, professor of wildlife resources, has fielded many inquiries about the Eastern cougar's status in recent decades. "So therefore, reintroductions are good viable alternatives.". This would be devastating for Florida panther conservation, which is currently led by the U.S. European immigrants killed cougars to protect themselves and their livestock. In a statement about the removal, U.S. The Cougar is Canada’s largest and most powerful cat. As discussed above, genetic distance will not support DPS listing either. The color and thickness of the coat of the cougar varies according to region and subspecies, but generally, cougars are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tails. Fish and Wildlife Service decreed this week. "[Classification] was based on things like the fur coat of animals and nuanced differences in sizes," says Robinson. Even though reintroduction is now “easier”, I find it inconceivable that any eastern state would actually chose to reintroduce them. The Eastern Cougar, also known as the eastern puma, was a large feline that has officially been pronounced extinct by the authorities. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Since the 1930’s however, eastern cougar numbers had been rapidly dwindling, so their extinction came as no real surprise. Eastern cougars, Western mountain lions, the North American cougar, and the Florida panther, for example, were uniquely labelled. You will see in this report the appearance, food, habitat, threats and interesting facts of the Eastern Cougar. When most people come across one in the wild, it's usually by accident. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. Cougars were once found all over North America. Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor) but can vary greatly across individuals and even siblings. Question 2. And to answer a possible question from some one else, should New Hampshire or another eastern state choose to reintroduce mountain lions, they will almost certainly do so with the provision that DPS status cannot be implemented, which would hinder the state from “flexible” management of the reintroduced animals. The white-tailed deer, the primary prey of the cougar, was nearly extinct in eastern North America by the late 1800s. The population in the eastern parts of the United States completely clear. Based upon subtle differences in coat color and skeletal measurements, historic scientists believed there were many subspecies of mountain lions in North America, including the eastern cougar. This classification is a key point for those who support future efforts to re-establish extinct populations of cougars in the Eastern United States. What if migrants establish a breeding population? On June 17, 2015, the Service published a proposed rule ( 80 FR 34595 ) to remove the eastern puma from the List, with a comment period extending through August 17, 2015. Fish and Wildlife Service says the eastern cougar used to be found in Michigan, parts of Canada and Maine and farther south. The Canadian … And last, some funny wording in the ESA regarding DPS status–is that it “must be used sparingly.” Given the current trend of the current administration with regards to wildlife issues, this might be a tough sell for awhile. Unofficially,in 2011, this long-tailed puma subspecies was considered to be extinct by an evaluationconducted by the U.S. And since it doesn’t exist, the eastern cougar was removed from the federal list of endangered and threatened species. "Cougars are very cryptic animals," says Michael Robinson from the environmental advocacy group Center for Biological Diversity. The remaining population of cougars in Florida is federally protected as an Endangered species. Western cougars appear secure; the relatively vast amount of wilderness available to them will assure their continued survival. Restored habitat corridors are vital to link these isolated populations. If so, then not protecting the single migrant seems to defeat the intention of the ESA. This means that current genetic research supports the belief that all the mountain lions in North America are of a single subspecies. the eastern cougar and the Costa Rica cougar is also in imminent danger. Eastern cougar Questions and answers about the five-year review March 2011 U.S. A cougar living in the desert, for example, might look slightly different than one more adapted to a forest in Canada. Surprisingly, some scientists say, this removal could be a good thing. Hope that helps! The U.S. Eastern cougars — also known as “ghost cats,” catamounts, panthers and, of course, mountain lions — disappeared after decades of overhunting on multiple fronts. Unlike eastern cougars, Florida panthers dodged extinction, but it was a close call. Does it really matter that the FL panther is not a distinct subspecies? Fish and Wildlife Service today declared the eastern puma extinct and removed it from the list of protected wildlife and plants under the Endangered Species Act. The U.S. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) currently recognizes six subspecies of mountain lions, of which only one—Puma concolor cougar—inhabits North America. Mr. MARK MCCULLOUGH (Endangered Species Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Service): There are no wild, breeding populations of cougars occurring in the Eastern … While cougar populations in this region have declined to the point of non-existence, it's more accurate to say only a certain population of the North American cougar species overall has vanished. The Eastern Cougar is endangered. It is more correct to say that the North American subspecies of mountain lions is locally extinct in the northeast, because there is not a breeding population in this region. Fish & Wildlife Service The U.S. People still won’t let the eastern cougar go, however. Eastern Cougars catch their prey by stalking and springing from bushes and rock cliffs. Removing the eastern cougar from the list of Endangered Species is an important step toward welcoming the species back to the northeast. With Tolerance, Apex Predators Like Cougars Can Return, Restore Ecosystems . The cougar has several subspecies, one of which was the eastern cougar. The eastern cougar is not extinct, it never existed–here is a mountain lion from the west, which genetics confirm is as much an eastern cougar as those cats that historically roamed New England. But, further, most people agree this is unlikely. Fish and Wildlife Service today confirmed the eastern puma is extinct and removed it from the federal endangered species list. July 23, 2015 By Robin Strong Elton Leave a Comment. Great questions! Fish and Wildlife Service has announced the animal no longer warrants Endangered … 7. Eastern Cougar. "To know the world is not entirely dominated by humanity is a peace of mind. It’s official: the eastern cougar is extinct. Some were trapped and killed for their fur while others were culled to prevent the cats from interfering with livestock. Wednesday's declaration paves the way for the eastern cougar to be removed from the endangered species list, where it was placed in 1973. "There is ecological havoc that has been created by deer not having any of their natural predators," he says of the rapidly growing white-tailed deer populations in the East. and the Elusive House Mouse, Reflection on Tracker Evaluations in North America. We must await summer 2019, when the review of the Florida panther is complete and results will be made public. This I think would be the best outcome for the Florida panther… but I do not know how the review team will weigh the requirements to assign DPS–the first requirement is that a population is “discrete.” Traditionally, this was clearer–the Florida panthers are clearly separate from the remainder of mountain lion populations, and anyone could see that they are discrete. Many states offered a bounty to encourage the killing of cougars. "There was never any real justification for giving it that status in the first place," says Mark Elbroch, the lead scientist for the puma program at the big cats conservation group Panthera. The agency's decision to declare the eastern cougar extinct does not affect the status of the Florida panther, another endangered wildcat. The Eastern Cougar eats only fresh meat. Why did eastern cougar populations become extinct? The Eastern Cougar has many threats. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) conducted a formal review of the available information and, in a report issued today, concludes the eastern cougar is extinct and recommends the subspecies be removed from the endangered species list. Eastern cougar is declared extinct nearly 80 years after last one was trapped and killed in Maine. Though they are not social animals, they will tolerate each other to mate. WASHINGTON— The U.S. info@markelbroch.com, Two Washington Talks on Mountain Lion Social Behaviors in February, A Perfect Storm: How Multi-Jurisdictional Management Affects Mountain Lions, Eastern Cougar “Extinction” — Some Key Points, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995 and 1996, Mammal Tracks, 2nd ed. It was declared extinct by the USFWS (United States Fish and Wildlife Service) in 2011. But hopefully this helps you see some of the hurdles–a breeding cat population would need to spring up right now in New Hampshire and be completely disconnected from other mountain lion populations to be even considered for DPS status…and the eastward expansion of mountain lions is slowly happening (at the speed of female dispersal, not male) and thus its unlikely a breeding population would spring up so far ahead of natural recolonization as it is already occurring. Some people still argue that mountain lions have existed in hidden pockets in New England for all of these years. The last records of eastern cougars are believed to be in Maine (1938) … The eastern puma (=cougar) was originally listed as an endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678). Additionally, Robinson adds, he would like to see the species protected for its own sake. Three of the over 20 subspecies of the cougar are endangered: the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi), the Costa Rican Puma (Puma concolor costaricensis), and the Eastern Puma (Puma concolor couguar). Currently, the IUCN lists North American cougars as a species of least concern overall, but notes that their population is declining.

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